Lanesboro was incorporated in 1889, but had been established in well before in 1787. The borough was first named “Lanesville” in 1829 after resident Martin Lane. The name was changed to Lanesborough in 1832. Lanesboro’s position near the falls of the Susquehanna River and the intersection of two valleys has greatly influenced the history of the town. As a transportation crossroads, Lanesboro became a distribution point for goods in the late nineteenth century. The conveniences of early Lanesboro included three stores, a hotel, a milinery shop, a machine shop, a wagon shop, two blacksmiths, a gristmill, a saw mill, two tanneries, a church, and a school. The years have seen many of these businesses change and even depart the borough. Though the Erie Railroad (builder of the Starrucca Viaduct) did not stop in Lanesboro, the Delaware and Hudson did. As with so many railroads, the D&H railroad bed was converted to Rails to Trails when it was taken out of commission.

Today Lanesboro has approximately 500 residents and several businesses. The Susquehanna Community School District, serving the Tri-Boro area (Lanesboro, Oakland, and Susquehanna) is located within the borough limits. A portion of Barnes-Kasson Hospital is also located in Lanesboro.